Version Control with Git
You can find the Software Carpentry lesson at: https://swcarpentry.github.io/git-novice/.
On this page, you will find:
- Instructor notes
- Try Git
These notes are mainly written for the instructors. Yet, they contain most (if not all) commands and important points taught during a workshop, which may be interesting if you want to remember how much you learnt during a workshop.
We tend to follow the Software Carpentry schedule except for explaining how to collaborate with Git(Hub). We rather use our experience in the Open Source community and how we use GitHub on a daily basis at TailorDev to give a better overview of how to efficiently collaborate with Git(Hub).
The big picture:
- Nothing that is committed is lost
- Possible to go back in time
- Exact record of who made what changes when
- Conflict management
- It is easy to set up
- Every copy of a Git repository is a full backup of a project and its history
- A few easy-to-remember commands are all you need for most day-to-day version control tasks
- The GitHub hosting service provides a web-based collaboration service
Automated version control
Explain how it can be used to keep track of what one person did and when.
Action: show PhD Comics picture
Changes separated from the document itself --> playing back different sets of changes.
A version control system is a tool that keeps track of these changes and help version and merge files.
Question: Who uses
undo in their editor?
Undo is the simplest form of version control.
Setting up Git
$ git config --global user.name "Your name here" $ git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org" $ git config --global color.ui "auto" $ git config --global core.editor "nano -w" $ git config --list
Creating a repository
$ cd ~ $ mkdir planets $ cd planets $ git init $ ls $ ls -a $ git status
$ nano mars.txt Cold and dry, but everything is my favorite color $ ls $ cat mars.txt $ git status $ git add mars.txt $ git status $ git commit -m "Start notes on Mars as a base"
Explain the notion of commit and commit identifier. You should write good commit messages.
$ git status $ git log
$ nano mars.txt The two moons may be a problem for Wolfman $ cat mars.txt $ git status $ git diff # important to review the changes before saving them --> cryptic output (explain each row)
$ git commit -m "Add concerns about effects on Mars' moons on Wolfman" $ git status
$ git add mars.txt $ git commit -m "Add concerns about effects on Mars' moons on Wolfman"
Action: explain the staging area with a drawing
$ nano mars.txt But the Mummy will appreciate the lack of humidity $ cat mars.txt $ git diff $ git add mars.txt $ git diff $ git diff --staged $ git commit -m "Discuss concerns about Mars' climate for Mummy" $ git status $ git log
Directories are not seen by Git, only files (actually contents) within them.
Action: recap of the
- Choosing a commit message
- Committing changes to Git
- Committing multiple files
Reference to a commit: identifiers.
Most recent commit is:
$ nano mars.txt An ill-considered change $ cat mars.txt $ git diff HEAD mars.txt $ git diff HEAD~1 mars.txt $ git diff HEAD~2 mars.txt $ git show HEAD~2 mars.txt
$ git log $ git diff <long_id> mars.txt # at least 4 chars $ git diff <short_id> mars.txt
$ nano mars.txt We will need to manufacture our own oxygen $ cat mars.txt $ git status $ git checkout HEAD mars.txt $ cat mars.txt $ git checkout <short_id> marst.txt $ cat mars.txt $ git status
$ git checkout -f master mars.txt # put things back the way they were
Use the commit number that identifies the state of the repository before the change we are trying to undo.
Action: enhance scheme to show how to switch states (unmodified, modified, staging area, commit).
- Recovering Older Versions of a File
- Understanding Workflow and History
$ mkdir results $ touch a.dat b.dat c.dat results/a.out results/b.out $ git status
$ nano .gitignore *.dat results/ $ cat .gitignore $ git status $ git add .gitignore $ git commit -m "Add the ignore file"
$ git add a.dat $ git status --ignored
It is possible to use wildcards.
- Ignoring nested files
- Including Specific Files
- Ignoring all data Files in a Directory
Remotes in GitHub
Only thing missing: copy changes from one repository to another.
Hosting services: GitHub, BitBucket, GitLab, etc.
Make clear that Git and GitHub are not the same thing.
Action: create a repo on GitHub, explain everyting.
Setup a remote:
$ git remote add origin https://github.com/<username>/planets.git $ git remote -v $ git push origin master
Fetch + merge changes:
$ git pull origin master
Be sure to explain the difference between Push and Commit.
master is a privilege.
Branches to the rescue!
- create a branch (and switch)
- show in Finder the state of the repo
- add a file with some content, commit it
- switch to
master(or previous branch)
- show in Finder
- push branch to github
- create a Pull Request
- merge PR
- retrieve branch
- delete branch
https://try.github.io is a great way to learn Git and GitHub. We usually use it as a quick "test" on the second day of a 2-day workshop. It does not replace the Software Carpentry lesson.